The study of asbiofabrication Ready STEM Go!!

Mackenzi Oliver: Welcome toReady STEM Go the show where we will be addressing some of ouramazing graduated class who will share their STEM ventures and the paththat they’ve taken to where they are today. I’m MMackenzi Oliver: Welcome toReady STEM Go the show where we will be speaking to some of ouramazing alumni who will share their STEM journeys and the paththat they’ve taken to where they are today. I’m Mackenzi Oliver,and today we’re talking about the ‘Science of biofabrication’,with Naomi Paxton. Welcome Naomi! Dr Naomi Paxton: ThanksMackenzi.

Mackenzi Oliver: So as one ofQueensland’s rising stars in biofabrication technologies,Naomi Paxton is completing her PhD within QUT’s ARC TrainingCenter in additive bio manufacturing, and she has beenawarded Advance Queensland fellowship where she will beusing 3D scan, model and print technology to develop betterfitting face masks for our Queensland clinicians, anabsolutely fantastic partnership with 3D systems, CSIRO and MetroNorth hospital and health services.

Last year, Naomi wonthe inaugural Ezio Rizzardo Polymer Scholarship inrecognition of the potential impact of her outstandingresearch that will help patients who have lost bone as a resultof accidents, or birth defects, or diseases such as cancer.Naomi was also the QUT Student Leader of the Year last year,which is pretty impressive. About myself as well, I’m amedical engineering and robotics student in my fourth year QUT.

I’ve actually had the privilege of speaking to Naomi a few timesover the past few years. And I’m really excited because everytime I get to speak to Naomi, I’m even more excited about theimportance of collaboration in scientific research, and how shehas surrounded herself with a diverse and supportivecommunity. So what we like to do to startoff the show is share a story within STEM.

Obviously, becauseSTEM is such an evolving and developing field, there’s alwaysso much going on. So we’d like to either share a epic,inspiring or crazy STEM story. What I want to share is that theNobel Prize for Chemistry 2020 has been awarded to two femalescientists for the development in genome editing. So absolutelyawesome. Because what a fantastic technology and awesometo see it moving forward in leaps and bounds.

But this prizehas only ever been awarded to five females in all of history.So it’s really cool to see it being awarded to this absolutelydynamic duo of these two female scientists. So really cool withthat. Naomi, have you got a epic, inspiring or crazy STEMstory for us this week? Dr Naomi Paxton: I do, Mackenzi.So my story is an inspiring story along the same linestalking about women in STEM.

So this week, Queensland iscelebrating women in technology and QUT is very proud to have 10finalists selected for the women and technology awards. Sonormally, this Awards Gala is a huge, glamorous event held inBrisbane for hundreds of guests, where we get together with otherpeople from universities, from companies from startups in intechnology and STEM areas and celebrate some of the amazingachievements of women, that are so often under represented orundervalued. And so it’s really exciting this year that we’reable to celebrate this event through a virtual platform.

Andthis event is really important and very special to me, becausetwo years ago, I was awarded the Young Achiever in Life Sciencesaward. And in the same ceremony, my supervisor and mentor,Professor Mia Woodruff, was awarded the Research Leaderaward in Life Sciences. And so it was a really special and veryhumbling experience and really special to be able to share thatwith my mentor to be awarded such, you know, prestigioushonors.

So this year, we’ll be cheering on my fellow PhDstudent, Maureen Ross, who’s been selected as a finalist forthe Young Achiever award. And so we’ll be celebrating with herand all of the other finalists and award winners tomorrownight. Mackenzi Oliver: Wow, that isreally exciting.

Yeah, what a powerhouse research team. Andit’ll be really exciting also to hear all the brilliant work thatall these women are doing in the area of technology, evenvirtually. Dr Naomi Paxton: Its going to bebrilliant. I’m excited. Mackenzi Oliver: No, beautiful.Well, thank you for your little STEM fact of the week.

So let’sdive in. We’re talking bio fabrication. So you’re workingin bio fabrication, what is it? Dr Naomi Paxton: Biofabricationis a really new research field. That’s basically 3D printinghuman body parts. So the goal of biofabrication research is tocombine research and technological developments in 3Dprinting, with areas like biology and material science andbiomaterials, to be able to create personalised tissueimplants.

So this is a really exciting research field thatI’ve been completing my masters and my PhD in. And it’s got ahuge, it’s going to have a huge amount of impact in the way thatwe approach healthcare by being able to 3D print patientspecific implants and tissues that can regenerate tissue andthen dissolve over time.

So we’re trying to completely healthese defects with no permanent implants, and use patientspecific materials, and biologically compatible anddegradable biomaterials, so that we can create these personalisedtissue solutions. Mackenzi Oliver: Absolutelyincredible.

It sounds so science fiction, it’s exciting to hearthat this is actually being worked on, even in our ownbackyard. So you said that, yeah, you did your Master’s andPhD in biofabrication. Can you tell us a little bit morespecifically what you got to do your work in? Dr Naomi Paxton: Yeah, so my PhDfocused on bone tissue engineering and usingbiofabrication to create bone substitutes.

So here we werelooking at when patients might have suffered large boneinjuries. So this might be from traumatic accidents, like a caraccident. This might also be when bone needs to be removedbecause of diseases like cancer, for example. So in these cases,these patients might have large chunks of bone that might be intheir hip or their leg or arm or head.

And these need to bereplaced with something so that the tissue can heal. So the goalof my research was to use 3D printing to create apersonalised implant, that we call a scaffold. And onto thatscaffold, we place the patient’s own bone cells. So those bonecells start to attach and grow into the patient’s own bonetissue.

And then when we implant it into the patient, it’sgrowing the patient’s own bone tissue, and then the materialthat we’ve 3D printed is dissolving over time. So ourgoal is to completely heal these bone defects for patients. Mackenzi Oliver: That’s insane.So the, the scaffold itself will dissolve at the same rate thatthe tissues will grow? Dr Naomi Paxton: That’s thegoal.

So we use some biodegradable polymers that arealready medically approved so that we know that they’re safefor implantation in humans. And we can tailor how quickly thesematerials degrade. So in the case of bone regeneration, we’dhope that the material would degrade over the space of aboutsix months to a year, and at that time, the bone tissue wouldbe growing and remodeling and replacing.

And so at the end ofthat year, the patient would have entirely new bone, that’stheir own. So there’s no risk of, you know, rejection, and theimplant itself will have naturally dissolved into thebody. Mackenzi Oliver: That’sabsolutely incredible, really exciting to hear.

So when can weget to see this in our hospitals, it sounds reallyexciting is this, like short term future, maybe something alittle bit further off? Dr Naomi Paxton: So my PhD wasfocused on preclinical studies. So we’re not taking this toclinical studies just yet. But hopefully, that’s in a few yearstime. But there’s a fair amount of work that needs to be done totranslate some of the amazing development that we have in thelab, that shows that we can grow these beautiful mature bonetissues, we know that they’re going to be safe, we know thatthey’re degrading safely.

But then there’s a lot that’s goingto take us to boards, clinical trials, where we can start toimplant this in patients, you know, in, in Queenslandhospitals. A lot of the work that needs to be done is aroundregulation. Of course, when we think about normal implants, orany other kind of medical products, they’re massmanufactured.

And so the quality control is quitestraightforward, because you’re making thousands of identicalproducts, and you just have to make sure they’re all identical.But in the field of biofabrication, our goal is tomake every one patient specific, every single implant that we’remaking, it’s to fit an exact defect for a specific personusing their own biological tissue.

And then, of course,creates a really huge problem in medical device regulation. Andso we need to team up with government and policy advisorsand lawyers to be able to also look at the way that we canconsider how to manufacture these safely so that they’repersonalised, but so that we know that we’re making them toto a really high standard every single time.

Mackenzi Oliver: Yeah,especially if you’re having any of these things, like,implemented in your own body, you obviously want to be surethat it’s definitely going to do the job. Really interestingpoint to have to think about, yeah, making it patient specificdoes mean that we do have to take those extra few steps. Dr Naomi Paxton: Yeah, I thinkit’s both a huge complication, and it’s going to be a massivestep forward.

It’s a, you know, a huge area of innovation. Andthat’s going to create, you know, a really a huge amount ofbenefit to the patients in the end, which is what reallymatters. Mackenzi Oliver: Yeah, that’s,yep. So exciting to hear. But how do you even come up withthis kind of technology, like we’ve probably heard about 3Dprinting things in the past, but fusing it into like a medicalapplication? Pretty exciting.

Dr Naomi Paxton: It is reallyexciting. And 3D printing has been around for quite a while,it was invented somewhere in the 1980s. But it really started totake off, kind of early in the 2000s. And that’s where westarted to realize that it could be really useful for processingthese biomaterials to create biological tissue structures aswell. And so we obviously can’t use normal commercial printersbecause these might be developed for, you know, just a normaldesktop printer, you know,

high school students might have some3D printers at school that they can use to, you know, prototypedifferent parts. There’s obviously big industrial 3Dprinters that you might have heard off that can, you know,process metals and things like that.

The 3D printers that weuse are really highly specialized. And so we have ateam of engineers in our lab that actually build our, ourmachines. Mackenzi Oliver: Woah. Dr Naomi Paxton: Yeah, so if wewant a new printhead, so we can process new materials, or wewant different types of collector plates, we’ve got ateam of engineers on hand, who can design and build all of thisequipment that we need, which is really wonderful.

Mackenzi Oliver: Are you 3Dprinting these 3D printers? Dr Naomi Paxton: I’m glad youasked that, we are. For our 3d printers, so they’re stillreplicating. Mackenzi Oliver: I love it.Yeah, because obviously, these printers, are you just gonna buythem off the internet or something, you’re not using themto just make like little, yeah, toys and whatnot.

So it’s goodto hear that there’s some real brain power going in behindthese printers that are going to be developing implant implantsfor, yeah, medical applications. Dr Naomi Paxton: Yeah, it’sreally exciting. And the engineers that we work with arebrilliant. Mackenzi Oliver: Awesome. Soyeah, what’s the absolute best thing that you get to do in yourwork? What’s the thing that gets you really going in the morning? Dr Naomi Paxton:

What reallyexcites me about my research is working in a reallymultidisciplinary team. And I think this is what’s quiteunique about biofabrication, compared to potentially some ofthe other research pathways I could have taken is thatbiofabrication relies on people with completely diverse scienceand engineering backgrounds.

So in my research team, I mentionedwe have a team of mechatronics and mechanical and electricalengineers that work on 3D printing, designing and buildingthese. We have people with physics and maths backgrounds,like myself, that look at ways to model how we can 3D printdifferent materials, or how we can design new and improvedscaffold structures that might have different biological ormechanical properties.

We obviously work really closelywith chemists and material sciences, scientists, becausethey’re developing all these new, brilliant biomaterials thatare more biomedical. They’re, they more closely resemble partsof the human body that we’re trying to replicate. And ofcourse, working with biologists to know a huge amount about howthese cells and the tissues interact with what we’re 3Dprinting.

And then of course, we all need the guidance and theoversight from the doctors and surgeons and clinicians who areultimately going to be using this in the clinic. And so theyhave a wealth of experience on how we could improve differentaspects of these implants, because they know what suits thepatients best as well.

So this is what I love aboutbiofabrication, is that it takes all of us working together tosolve all of these challenges, because no one person couldpossibly be qualified in all of these areas to be able to do itthemselves. And so I love that we’re always having to learn offeach other, we’re using our own different experiences anddifferent problem solving strategies, you know, to tacklesome of these really complex challenges.

And I think thatcreates a really exciting research environment. The otherbenefit to it is that we have to practice good sciencecommunication all the time, because we can’t even presumethat our fellow PhD students, or even our supervisors have thesame background that we do. So we can’t use jargon, we can’tuse really technical language. We always have to be reallycarefully and concisely explaining our research, toessentially a lay audience to make sure that we can allunderstand what we’re doing and how all of our research cancomplement each other as well. So I think that’s definitely thehighlight of my research. And it keeps the job really exciting.

Mackenzi Oliver: No, 100% thatwould make, especially lunchroom discussions very interesting. Ifyou get all those really awesome, intelligent people in aroom together. Dr Naomi Paxton: Yeah, it alsomakes it very difficult at times, obviously, people have toexplain the concepts that you need an entire degree tounderstand that we just don’t know. So yeah, keeps itinteresting for sure. Mackenzi Oliver: Yes, Idefinitely you’d have to hone in on those skills of being able toreally eloquently explain, so took me four years to understandthis, but I’m going to explain it to you in 30 seconds.

Dr Naomi Paxton: Pretty much.It’s the elevator pitch. Mackenzi Oliver: Yep, beautiful.Yeah, lunchroom pitch, elevator pitch. Just, so in that elementof like sharing your ideas, how important really is that withinthe scientific community? And even to people, perhaps outsideof the scientific community, too? Dr Naomi Paxton: There’s twoaspects to that.

I think, firstly, it’s very importantthat we share our research. We’re obviously funded by a lotof government grants. And so they encourage us to, of course,share all of our research to the scientific community. So thatmight be through publications in journal articles, that’sattending conferences, so that we’re talking to our peers fromaround Australia or around the world. Our goal is to increasethe body of knowledge in our field. And so we need to shareall of the research that we’re doing so

that we can all kind oflead towards this really kind of driven high turnover research,where we all can feed off each other’s research so that we’renot all duplicating, you know, the same kind of experiments andthings. So I think that’s really important, and that’s somethingthat my supervisor is really, really passionate about ismaking sure that we’re communicating our researchreally clearly,

that we are attending conferences, andcollaborating with other research labs and stuff. Becausein the end, that leads to far better research outcomes, andmuch quicker translation of our research towards clinical use aswell. And then, of course, our research group, we love gettingengaged with, you know, with high school students and withthe general public

and just getting people excited about ourresearch, because we need the community to engage in whatwe’re doing to drive it towards, you know, getting accepted intoclinical use. And so the more input that we get from, youknow, the general public, the better off we are asresearchers, which is really important. Mackenzi Oliver: Yeah. And like,you can make a groundbreaking,

exciting discovery, but youdon’t get to talk about it, if you don’t get to share it. Ithink that’s almost half of the discovery itself is being ableto, yeah, as you said before, get people excited, get peopleinvolved in the community and things as well. Dr Naomi Paxton: Yeah, it isreally important. A really good example of this was we’ve justlaunched this new project that you mentioned on creatingpersonalized face masks for clinicians. And so we’ve tweetedabout this new

project that we’re going to start and Iactually got a message from a community member saying that sherelied on lip reading. And she found it really difficult inhospitals and in GP clinics at the moment, because everyone’swearing face masks, because she can’t lip read through thesemasks. And so she asked if we could consider using transparentmaterials for

our masks that we’re developing, because thatwould really assist her, you know, going about her dailylife. And it’s something as simple as that, that, you know,that’s it’s really important feedback for us. And wepotentially wouldn’t have thought about it when we’relocked in our research labs thinking about our technicaltask ahead of us. But really, really important for us

to getthat kind of community feedback on what we’re doing. We love it. Mackenzi Oliver: Yeah. And 100%,how exciting is that as well that people can get into contactwith these research projects that are even going on in realtime. And yeah, little things like that you just probablywould not even thought about unless someone did get a chanceto reach out. So it’s really cool that there’s got avenues todo that, too. Dr Naomi Paxton: Yeah, we thinkits been really important.

Mackenzi Oliver: Yeah. Soanother question we’d like to ask would be just kind of a bitmore about your journey. So bio manufacturing, absolutelyawesome, super cool. But you don’t just wake up one day, andyou’re like, Oh, that’s what I’m gonna do.

So do you want to leadus a little bit, what’s this story looks like for you so far?How have you gotten into this really exciting space? Dr Naomi Paxton: I think at highschool, I knew that I loved like maths and sciences, I wasprobably leaning towards, you know, more of the STEMdisciplines, compared to the humanities. Of course, I’ve gotan older sister who’s a lawyer.

So I always had that perspectivethat the humanities were an option. But I think I wasdefinitely driven towards more of the sciences. And so I knewthat I love research, I loved the problem solving and criticalthinking. You know, I loved those assignments, you know, inhigh school, where you got to investigate a problem and, andcome up with your own experiments to try and to tryand address them and things like that. So I thought research wasa good idea.

And I chose physics to start at, for an undergraddegree, and have as my pathway into research because I wasreally excited about, you know, particle physics and, and howeverything is created and the different types of particles andhunting for new particles and all of that. And so I started myBachelor of Science majoring in Physics here at QUT, andabsolutely loved it.

And as part of my undergrad degree, I alsodid some astrophysics research as well, because the space isjust super cool, and very exciting. And so I loved that.And so towards the end of my degree, I was obviously lookingat where I wanted to kind of continue my research journey.And by complete coincidence, I was watching the TEDx QUT evet. And I got to give a rea ly short presentation on my astophysics research.

But later on n the afternoon, Professor MiaWoodruff gave an amazing pre entation on this new resarch field called bio fab ication. And I’ve never head of it before, frankly, it pro ably didn’t even exist whil I was at high school. It was rand new, and it was this groudbreaking new combination of 3 printing and biomaterials reserch. And I couldn’t believe it.

thought it was really exciing. So I got talking to Prof ssor Mia Woodruff after the vent, and I said, you know, her esearch sounds really ncredible. She told me that hey were launching a new aster’s program, and they were ooking for people with really iverse backgrounds, like people ith a physics degree to come in nd do biofabrication research.

kind of said, Why, why would ou want a physicist, you know, urely you want medical ngineers or biologists doing his research, but sure enough, he explained how ultidisciplinary bio fabricationwas and how they want people with these really diversebackgrounds to come and join. So I did I applied for the master’sprogram. I got to spend some time here at QUT and then tim over in Germany, doing som really amazing bio fabriction research.

I had to do a l t of subjects, obviously to cath up on things like anatom and physiology, to get up to peed with kind of that side o the research as well. Yeah, andthen came back to QUT to do my PhD as well. So it’s obviously een a really kind of div rse journey. And I definitely din’t sit down at high school and ay, I want to be a biofabricaion researcher, because there wa no scope for that.

But ‘ve definitely just followed, you know, doing things that I ove and things that I enjoyed. And I’ve loved meeting people aong the way, like me, who have, you know, really shaped ho my career has progressed. It’s een a roller coaster, but it’s een excit Mackenzi Oliver:

No, 100%, and,yeah, how exciting that you get to, I love doing physics, I’lljust go do physics, and then astrophysics and then givingcool presentations. You said it was a TEDx conference, yep,absolutely awesome. So just these little, like, bits of,bits of your journey just kind of pop up like that, don’t they? Dr Naomi Paxton: Yeah. And I’vebeen very fortunate to have the opportunities to do things likethat,

to be able to do research alongside my degree. To get theopportunity to speak it at a TEDx event, and things likethat. So it’s been really brilliant. Mackenzi Oliver: Yeah, it isclear that you’re so passionate about it, too. Dr Naomi Paxton: It’s good fun. Mackenzi Oliver: Yeah. So Ithink that’s nearly about all we have time for today. But we’lllike to close with a little bit of, what is the best piece ofadvice that you’ve ever been given.

Dr Naomi Paxton: The best adviceI was given was from Professor Martin Betts, who was the Deanof Science and Engineering back when I started my degree here atQUT. And on the very first day, I sat down in a lecture theatrewith Professor Martin giving this introduction talk to theto the course. And he said, your future job doesn’t exist yet. Iwent, what?

No, I thought I had a plan, I thought. Mackenzi Oliver: There was aplan. Dr Naomi Paxton: And that’sprobably at the time, I felt that was a bit of a scary pieceof advice, because I thought, well, how can I plan for a jobthat I that doesn’t exist yet?

How can I prepare myself forsomething when, when potentially the job I’ll be doing I can’teven think about? I think as I went along, I realised that whatthat piece of advice means, is it enables me to explore newthings, which has been very fortuitous, in a way becauseI’ve ended up in this new research field, that certainlydidn’t exist while I was in high school.

And I couldn’t haveplanned or predicted it. But there’s going to be all of theseamazing jobs in biofabrication that didn’t exist back when Istarted my degree. And because I was given that advice, to go outand explore new things and talk to new people and be open to youknow, brand new areas of research that you’d neverconsidered or that didn’t exist before.

That that’s enabled meto get all of these experiences that have led me to be where Iam today. So thank you, Professor Betts, that that was areally wonderful, little bit scary piece of advice. But um,yeah, really valuable. Mackenzi Oliver: I think, yeah,maybe the best advice is supposed to scare us a bit atfirst, but really cool to hear. Yeah, and I’m sure that woulddefinitely resonate with a lot of maybe people who are lookingto start at uni as well,

with people saying, Oh, so you wantto do this degree, what do you want to do with it? Not sure! Dr Naomi Paxton: Yeah, I thinkthe ‘not sure’ probably is a little bit scary. But it’s alsojust exciting. Because especially in STEM, everything’sevolving so rapidly.

You know, the jobs in five years time, arenot going to be things that we’ve even thought about today.So yeah, it’s a good prompt to be open to new opportunity. Mackenzi Oliver: Yeah, just keepyour eyes peeled. And as you said before, just keep exploringas well. Yeah, beautiful. Um, so thank you so much Naomi. Andthat’s all for today’s episode of Ready STEM Go!

Thank you forlistening. And yeah, thank you again, for your story andgetting to chat with us about all these wonderful, excitingthings and the opportunities that might not even exist yetfor us. Dr Naomi Paxton: Thanks forthat, Mackenzi. Its been great. Mackenzi Oliver: Yeah, so joinus again for the next episode. And make sure that you subscribeto our channel, so you can never miss another episode. Pleasemake sure that you join our Facebook group, QUT STEMis4me,with the number four, to keep up to date with events andresources that you can access. Thanks, guys.ackenzi Oliver,and today we’re discussing the ‘Study of biofabrication’,with Naomi Paxton. Welcome Naomi! Dr Naomi Paxton: ThanksMackenzi.

Mackenzi Oliver: So as one ofQueensland’s rising stars in biofabrication technologies,Naomi Paxton is finishing her PhD inside QUT’s ARC TrainingCenter in added substance bio assembling, and she has beenawarded Advance Queensland cooperation where she will beusing 3D output, model and print innovation to create betterfitting face veils for our Queensland clinicians, anabsolutely incredible organization with 3D frameworks, CSIRO and MetroNorth medical clinic and wellbeing administrations.

A year ago, Naomi wonthe debut Ezio Rizzardo Polymer Scholarship inrecognition of the likely effect of her outstandingresearch that will help patients who have lost bone as a resultof mishaps, or birth deformities, or illnesses, for example, cancer.Naomi was additionally the QUT Student Leader of the Year last year,which is pretty great. About myself too, I’m amedical designing and advanced mechanics understudy in my fourth year QUT.

I’ve really had the advantage of addressing Naomi a couple timesover the previous few years. Also, I’m truly energized on the grounds that everytime I will address Naomi, I’m much more amped up for theimportance of coordinated effort in logical exploration, and how shehas encircle herself with a different and supportivecommunity. So what we like to do to startoff the show is share a story inside STEM.

Clearly, becauseSTEM is such an advancing and creating field, there’s alwaysso much going on. So we’d prefer to either share an epic,inspiring or insane STEM story. What I need to share is that theNobel Prize for Chemistry 2020 has been granted to two femalescientists for the improvement in genome altering. So absolutelyawesome. Since what a fabulous innovation and awesometo see it pushing ahead by a wide margin.

However, this prizehas just ever been granted to five females in all of history.So it’s truly cool to see it being granted to this absolutelydynamic couple of these two female researchers. So truly cool withthat. Naomi, do you have an epic, motivating or insane STEMstory for us this week? Dr Naomi Paxton: I do, Mackenzi.So my story is a rousing story along the equivalent linestalking about ladies in STEM.

So this week, Queensland iscelebrating ladies in innovation and QUT is glad to have 10finalists chosen for the ladies and innovation grants. Sonormally, this Awards Gala is a tremendous, exciting occasion held inBrisbane for many visitors, where we get along with otherpeople from colleges, from organizations from new businesses in intechnology and STEM regions and commend a portion of the amazingachievements of ladies, that are so frequently under spoke to orundervalued. As it’s truly energizing this year that we’reable to commend this occasion through a virtual stage.

Andthis occasion is truly significant and uncommon to me, becausetwo years back, I was granted the Young Achiever in Life Sciencesaward. What’s more, in a similar service, my administrator and mentor,Professor Mia Woodruff, was granted the Research Leaderaward in Life Sciences. Thus it was a truly extraordinary and veryhumbling experience and truly uncommon to have the option to share thatwith my coach to be granted such, you know, prestigioushonors.

So this year, we’ll be applauding my kindred PhDstudent, Maureen Ross, who’s been chosen as a finalist forthe Young Achiever grant. Thus we’ll be celebrating with herand the entirety of different finalists and grant champs tomorrownight. Mackenzi Oliver: Wow, that isreally energizing.

Definitely, what a stalwart examination group. Andit’ll be truly energizing additionally to hear all the splendid work thatall these ladies are doing in the zone of innovation, evenvirtually. Dr Naomi Paxton: Its going to bebrilliant. I’m energized. Mackenzi Oliver: No, beautiful.Well, thank you for your little STEM reality of the week.

So let’sdive in. We’re talking bio manufacture. So you’re workingin bio creation, what’s going on here? Dr Naomi Paxton: Biofabricationis a truly new exploration field. That is essentially 3D printinghuman body parts. So the objective of biofabrication research is tocombine research and innovative improvements in 3Dprinting, with zones like science and material science andbiomaterials, to have the option to make customized tissueimplants.

So this is a truly energizing exploration field thatI’ve been finishing my lords and my PhD in. What’s more, it has ahuge, it will have an enormous measure of effect in the manner thatwe approach medical care by having the option to 3D print patientspecific embeds and tissues that can recover tissue andthen disintegrate over the long haul.

So we’re attempting to totally healthese abandons with no lasting inserts, and use patientspecific materials, and naturally viable anddegradable biomaterials, so we can make these personalisedtissue arrangements. Mackenzi Oliver: Absolutelyincredible.

It sounds so sci-fi, it’s energizing to hearthat this is really being taken a shot at, even in our ownbackyard. So you said that, better believe it, you did your Master’s andPhD in biofabrication. Would you be able to reveal to us a smidgen morespecifically what you had the chance to accomplish your work in? Dr Naomi Paxton: Yeah, so my PhDfocused on bone tissue designing and usingbiofabrication to make bone substitutes.

So here we werelooking at when patients may have endured huge boneinjuries. So this may be from horrendous mishaps, similar to a caraccident. This may likewise be when bone should be removedbecause of illnesses like disease, for instance. So in these cases,these patients may have huge lumps of bone that may be intheir hip or their leg or arm or head.

Furthermore, these need to bereplaced with something so the tissue can recuperate. So the goalof my examination was to utilize 3D printing to make apersonalised embed, that we call a framework. Also, onto thatscaffold, we place the patient’s own bone cells. So those bonecells begin to connect and develop into the patient’s own bonetissue.

And afterward when we embed it into the patient, it’sgrowing the patient’s own bone tissue, and afterward the materialthat we’ve 3D printed is dissolving over the long run. So ourgoal is to totally mend these bone imperfections for patients. Mackenzi Oliver: That’s insane.So the, the platform itself will break down at a similar rate thatthe tissues will develop? Dr Naomi Paxton: That’s thegoal.

So we utilize some biodegradable polymers that arealready restoratively endorsed so we realize that they’re safefor implantation in people. Also, we can tailor how rapidly thesematerials corrupt. So on account of bone recovery, we’dhope that the material would debase over the space of aboutsix months to a year, and around then, the bone tissue wouldbe developing and redesigning and supplanting.

Thus toward the end ofthat year, the patient would have totally new bone, that’stheir own. So there’s no danger of, you know, dismissal, and theimplant itself will have normally broken up into thebody. Mackenzi Oliver: That’sabsolutely unfathomable, truly energizing to hear.

So when can weget to see this in our medical clinics, it sounds reallyexciting is this, similar to momentary future, perhaps something alittle nibbled further off? Dr Naomi Paxton: So my PhD wasfocused on preclinical examinations. So we’re not taking this toclinical concentrates right now. In any case, ideally, that is in a couple yearstime. Yet, there’s a decent lot of work that should be done totranslate a portion of the astonishing improvement that we have in thelab, that shows that we can develop these lovely develop bonetissues, we realize that they will be sheltered, we realize thatthey’re debasing securely.

However, at that point there’s a ton that is goingto take us to sheets, clinical preliminaries, where we can begin toimplant this in patients, you know, in, in Queenslandhospitals. A great deal of the work that should be done is aroundregulation. Obviously, when we consider typical inserts, orany other sort of clinical items, they’re massmanufactured.

Thus the quality control is quitestraightforward, on the grounds that you’re making a great many identicalproducts, and you simply need to ensure they’re all identical.But in the field of biofabrication, our objective is tomake each one patient explicit, each and every embed that we’remaking, it’s to fit a careful deformity for a particular personusing their own natural tissue.

And afterward, of course,creates a truly colossal issue in clinical gadget guideline. Andso we have to collaborate with government and strategy advisorsand attorneys to have the option to likewise take a gander at the way that we canconsider how to fabricate these securely so they’repersonalised, however so we realize that we’re making them toto an extremely exclusive expectation each and every time.

Mackenzi Oliver: Yeah,especially in case you’re having any of these things, like,implemented in your own body, you clearly need to be surethat it’s certainly going to take care of the work. Truly interestingpoint to need to consider, no doubt, making it understanding specificdoes imply that we do need to make those additional couple of strides. Dr Naomi Paxton: Yeah, I thinkit’s both a tremendous inconvenience, and it will be a massivestep forward.

It’s a, you know, a gigantic territory of development. Andthat will make, you know, an actually a colossal sum ofbenefit to the patients eventually, which is what reallymatters. Mackenzi Oliver: Yeah, that’s,yep. So energizing to hear. In any case, how would you even come up withthis sort of innovation, similar to we’ve presumably caught wind of 3Dprinting things previously, yet melding it into like a medicalapplication? Pretty energizing.

Dr Naomi Paxton: It is reallyexciting. What’s more, 3D printing has been around for truly a while,it was developed some place during the 1980s. In any case, it truly began totake off, sort of right on time during the 2000s. Furthermore, that is the place where westarted to understand that it very well may be truly valuable for processingthes

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